Saturday, September 01, 2012

LUNA AZUL


A pesar de lo que indica su nombre, esta noche tendrá lugar un hermoso fenómeno astronómico que poco, o nada, tiene que ver con el color de la Luna.
Esta noche la Luna será azul, aunque al mirar hacia las estrellas usted la vea flotando en el infinito cosmos pálida y gris como de costumbre. Y es que la razón del por qué se llama Luna azul a este astro que tanto ha fascinado por siglos al hombre tiene poco, o nada, que ver con el color.

“Contrario a su nombre, la Luna no se ve azul”, expone en un boletín el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, institución que explica al respecto que, en realidad, “es un término que nos indica que podremos ver en dos ocasiones, en el mismo mes, una Luna llena”.

Esto, añade el Instituto de Astronomía, se debe a que el ciclo entre dos fases llenas de la Luna es de 29.53 días. “Entonces, si la primera cae al principio del mes, muy probablemente la siguiente caerá al final del mismo mes”.

El primer registro del uso del término Luna azul data de 1524. Dicho término hacía referencia a la tercera fase llena de la Luna en una estación del año dentro de la cual caían cuatro lunas llenas en vez de las tres que regularmente suceden en una estación. Sin embargo, es en 1946 cuando el término obtiene una nueva interpretación a través de un artículo en la revista norteamericana de Sky & Telescope, donde se le llama Luna azul a la segunda Luna llena que cae dentro de un mes del calendario.

En este sentido, si usamos la definición de 1524, no será hasta el 21 de agosto de 2013 que tocará la tercera Luna en fase llena (de cuatro) durante una estación (verano).



¿Alguna vez cambia de color?

No obstante, a pesar de que el término Luna azul hace referencia a un fenómenos astronómico, se ha reportado que después de erupciones volcánicas o incendios forestales, el satélite toma una tonalidad ligeramente azul, “ya que las partículas de ceniza que se liberan generan que la luz de la Luna, al pasar por la atmósfera terrestre, se vea de ese color“, expone el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM. Dicho fenómenos se ha reportado después de la erupción de los volcanes Krakatoa (Indonesia, 1883), Santa Elena (EU, 1980) y Chichón (México, 1983), entre otros. “Sin embargo -precisa la institución académica- no tiene relación alguna con las definiciones de luna azul”
.

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